Excerpts from the 1942 propaganda film Toyo no Gaika celebrate the Japanese occupation of the Philippines during World War II. Named after a Japanese victory song, the film uses the power of the cinematic image for ideological purposes. A parade of visual symbols, emphasizing the patriotism of the victor and the defeat of the enemy, includes portraits of captured American generals and a trampled American flag.
Tsutomu Sawamura (1915–1977) was a Japanese film director, critic and screenwriter. His importance to the history of Philippine cinema was overlooked until historian and filmmaker Nick Deocampo declared him one of the creators of Philippine national cinema. Sawamura, he said, sought forms of cinematic expression of Filipino national identity rather than the imitation of Hollywood models.